Applied Computing units 1 and 2

VCE Applied Computing units 1 and 2

KK = Key Knowledge. All KK are examinable (as are all terms in the glossary that are relevant to this course)
If a KK uses the word "including", all of the following items are examinable.
If a KK uses the words "for example" or "such as", the following items are for clarity, and are not directly examinable.
Any bullet points shown below have been inserted by me for clarity, and are not in the original VCAA study design. (Which is available locally here.)
Hover your mouse of a red asterisk to see the official VCAA glossary definition of a term.

vcedata.com slideshow links to a (big) slideshow if the icon has a label beside it

links to a webpage on this site.


Check out my the postmortem of VCAA's 2020 sample DA exam with lots of exam tips.

 
AC U1O1 KK01 Types and purposes of qualitative and quantitative data

vcedata.com slideshow Qualitative and quantitative data

 

AC U1O1 KK02 Characteristics of data and information

vcedata.com slideshow

Data are raw, unprocessed observations of reality, e.g. the current temperature.

Information is data that has been processed (summarised, totalled, visualised, categorised, sorted, etc). e.g. The average temperature on this day at this time over the past decade.

"Raw" data (a tautology - all data by definition are "raw") are usually bulky and impossible for humans to make sense of.

Information provides data in a form that makes sense to humans (e.g.  a graph of a million numbers).

Warning: information may be unreliable because its data has been processed...

  • badly (e.g. using a mode average instead of a mean),
  • dishonestly (e.g. cherrypicking data to prevent conclusions those that don't support the processor's point of view)
  • incompetently (e.g. confusing one set of data with another)
  • lazily (e.g. not finding all relevant data and only using what can be easily found)
  • without attribution (not saying where the original data came from)
  • using worthless data from an irrelevant time and/or place
AC U1O1 KK03 Sources, methods and techniques for acquiring and referencing primary and secondary data and information

vcedata.com slideshow Data collection techniques

vcedata.com slideshow Primary and secondary data and information

 

AC U1O1 KK04 Interpretation of information for communication and decision making

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U1O1 KK05

Factors affecting the quality of data and information, such as

  • accuracy,
  • bias,
  • integrity,
  • relevance and
  • reliability

vcedata.com slideshow Data integrity

 

AC U1O1 KK06

Characteristics of Data typeglossary links and Data structureglossary links relevant to selected software tools

Data types

vcedata.com slideshow Arrays

vcedata.com slideshow Records and files

 

AC U1O1 KK07 Procedures for the legal and ethical collection and use of data and information, such as using consent forms

vcedata.com slideshow Ethical dilemmas

 

AC U1O1 KK08 Techniques for protecting data and information from misuse, such as de-identifying personal data and the use of Physicalglossary link and Software security controlsglossary link

vcedata.com slideshow Data security

vcedata.com slideshow Security Threats

Penetration Testing (White Hat - Ethical hacking)

AC U1O1 KK09 Structural characteristics of spreadsheets and databases, such as cells, fields, records and tables

vcedata.com slideshow Database basics

vcedata.com slideshow Database structure

Spreadsheets

A spreadsheet is really a flat-file (single-table) database.

The basic unit of data is the cell - where a row and column intersect.

Cells are referred to using a grid reference showing the row as a letter and the column as a number
e.g. cell B6 is the cell in row 2 (B) column 6.

Usually, a column is a field (a data item like a surname).

Usually, a row is a record (a complete collection of fields describing an object such as a person).

Rectangular groups of cells can form a table of data called a range. A range is described by naming the cell at the top-left corner and the cell at the botton-right corner. e.g. range B3:E6 is the group of cells with top-left corner being cell B3 and the bottom-right corner cell being E6.

A unique feature that spreadsheets have is the sheet - any number of spreadsheet 'pages' that can be used for different purposes, such as lookup tables, graphs, summary output, raw data etc to keep them out of the way.

 

AC U1O1 KK10 Types and purposes of Data visualisationglossary links suitable for educating, entertaining, informing and persuading audiences

Data Visualisation - a page that will be forever in development

 

AC U1O1 KK11 Functional and non-functional requirements of Solutionglossary links, constraints and scope

vcedata.com slideshow Software requirement specifications (SRS)

Functional and non-functional requirements

Functional requirement (FR) - things that a solution should be able to do (e.g. convert dollars to yen)

Non-Functional requirement (NFR) - a quality or attribute a solution should have (e.g. be easy to use, be flexible, be able to work with all the major web browsers)

Constraint - a factor that restricts the choice of design options e.g. solution must work on a phone, must be developed within a month, cannot exceed 32MB in size.

Scope - the limits of functionality that the solutions must be able to provide, e.g. must work at least with Windows 8-10, must support Australian tax codes up to 2025, must be able to process orders from any Australian state or territory. The scope is defined so the developers have a clear set of FRs and NFRs they need to provide: anything beyond the specified scope is officially Not Their Problem.

e.g.

Software Client: I've had complaints from New Zealanders that your program won't accept their orders.

Developer: Look at the scope definitions in the SRS. It's Not Our Problem.

 

AC U1O1 KK12

Design tools for representing the functionality and appearance of

  • databases,
  • spreadsheets and
  • Data visualisationglossary links,

such as

  • annotated diagrams and
  • mock-ups

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools

vcedata.com slideshow Mockups

vcedata.com slideshow Design factors

vcedata.com slideshow Data dictionary

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Entity relationship diagrams (ERD) for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Pseudocode

vcedata.com slideshow Website design tools (sitemaps, storyboards)

 

AC U1O1 KK13 Formatsglossary link and Conventionglossary links suitable for databases, spreadsheets and Data visualisationglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Formats and conventions (web)

 

AC U1O1 KK14 Software functions and techniques for efficiently and effectively manipulating, Validatglossary linking and Testingglossary link data to develop databases, spreadsheets and Data visualisationglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Testing

Data Validation 

vcedata.com slideshow Test data

 

Comment: How do you "test data"? It does not make sense to me.

AC U1O1 KK15

Australian Privacy Principles relating to the acquisition, management and communication of data and information including

  • non-identification of individuals (Principle 2),
  • information only being held for its primary purpose (Principle 6) and
  • the security measures used to protect personal information (Principle 11)

vcedata.com slideshow Privacy Legislation

 

AC U1O1 KK16 Ethical issues arising from the acquisition, storage and use of data and information.

vcedata.com slideshow Ethical dilemmas

 

AC U1O2 KK01 Functions and capabilities of key hardware and software components of digital systemglossary links required for processing, storing and communicating data and information

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware & software

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware

vcedata.com slideshow Network Hardware

 

AC U1O2 KK02 Characteristics of Data typeglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Data Types

 

AC U1O2 KK03 Types of Data structureglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Arrays

vcedata.com slideshow Linked lists

vcedata.com slideshow Records and files

On the way: Stacks, queues

 

 

AC U1O2 KK04

 

Features of functional and non-functional Solutionglossary link requirements, constraints and scope

vcedata.com slideshow Software requirement specifications

AC U1O2 KK05

Design tools for representing the functionality and appearance of Solutionglossary link designs such as

  • data dictionaries,
  • mock-ups and
  • Pseudocodeglossary link

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools

vcedata.com slideshow Mockups

vcedata.com slideshow Design factors

vcedata.com slideshow Data dictionary

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Entity relationship diagrams for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Pseudocode

vcedata.com slideshow Website design tools (sitemaps, storyboards)

 

AC U1O2 KK06 Naming Conventionglossary links for Solutionglossary link elements such as files, functions, methods and variables

vcedata.com slideshow Naming conventions

vcedata.com slideshow Database structure naming

vcedata.com slideshow File Naming

 

AC U1O2 KK07 Processing featuresglossary link of a programming language

vcedata.com slideshow Processing Features of a programming language - functions, statements etc

 

AC U1O2 KK08 Characteristics of internal documentation

vcedata.com slideshow Internal Documentation

 

AC U1O2 KK09 Formatting and structural characteristics of input and output such as file formats

vcedata.com slideshow XML data files

Also see brief notes about text and CSV files on the SofDev page

AC U1O2 KK10 Testingglossary link and debugging techniques to ensure software Solutionglossary links meet requirements such as test tables and test data

vcedata.com slideshow Testing

vcedata.com slideshow Test data

vcedata.com slideshow Trace tables and desk checks (programming)

 

AC U1O2 KK11 Techniques for evaluating the Efficiencyglossary link and Effectiveness of software solutions

vcedata.com slideshow Evaluation (Problem solving methodology)

 

AC U1O2 KK12

Project plans to coordinate and monitor the tasks, including

  • sequencing and
  • time allocation

to create software Solutionglossary links.

vcedata.com slideshow Project management

vcedata.com slideshow Gantt charts

vcedata.com slideshow Gantt and PERT charts

 

AC U2O1 KK01 Components of digital systemglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware & software

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware

vcedata.com slideshow Network Hardware

 

AC U2O1 KK02

Types of digital devices used for a range of current and emerging applications such as

  • smart phones, smart refrigerators and virtual assistants

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O1 KK03 Emerging trends in digital systemglossary links and the importance of innovation to organisations, such as improving Efficiencyglossary link and Effectiveness of customer service and maintaining competitiveness

vcedata.com slideshow Efficient and effective solutions

 

AC U2O1 KK04

Functions and capabilities of digital systemglossary links used by individuals and organisations, such as

  • assistive technologies,
  • financial services,
  • global positioning system (GPS) devices,
  • robotics and
  • traffic management

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O1 KK05

Techniques for collecting data to determine user needs and requirements, such as

  • interviews and
  • surveys

vcedata.com slideshow Data collection techniques

 

AC U2O1 KK06 Techniques for documenting the development of Solutionglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow

I'm not sure what this KK (key knowledge) wants. Is it literally the VCAA-defined development stage of the PSM (Problem-solving methodology)? Or is it referring to the overall development of a solution from analysis to evaluation? Seeking guidance.

Assuming it's just the development stage of the PSM:

Development documentation

What it is - a written record of what has been development has been done, by whom, when, and why. If necessary, also how it was done.

Why it is done - to record the progress of a solution. This can be used to:

  • keep various project teams in touch with other teams' progress
  • plan the next stages of the project's timeline, including tasks, staff and resources.
  • bring new team workers up to speed as to what has happened so far,
  • satisfy the bill-payers that their money is being well-spent,
  • let the team diagnose where things in the project went wrong,
  • help developers plan their next project better based on learning from the current project.
AC U2O1 KK07

Solutionglossary link specifications such as

  • functional requirements,
  • non-functional requirements,
  • constraints and
  • scope

vcedata.com slideshow Software requirement specifications

AC U2O1 KK08 Characteristics of creative and innovative Solutionglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow

What are some historical creative and innovative solutions?

  • the spreadsheet and word processor
  • email
  • public key encryption
  • the GUI interface (WIMP) for operating systems
  • the transistor and integrated circuit
  • Clippy, the Microsoft assistant
  • USB interface
  • the mouse
  • the internet - TCP/IP, HTML, DNS, WWW, CSS, Javascript, FTP, torrents
  • wireless data communications (local and mobile)
  • page-ranked internet search
  • floppy disks, HDD, SSD
  • artificial intelligence, AI assistants like Siri
  • cloud computing and storage
  • GPS
  • data compression, e.g. zip

Care to suggest others?

In summary, ground-breaking innovative solutions:

  • serve a user's relevant needs - even those needs that users never previously realised that they had
  • are often simple in hindsight - they make people swear and mutter, "Why didn't I think of that?" or "That's so obvious, now I think about it"
  • look at old problems a different way
  • combine several old products or functions in a single new tool
  • reduce complexity
  • increase flexibility and configurability
  • are easier to use - untrained users can quickly, safely and productively use the product
  • reduce effort of use
  • reduce cost of purchase, operation and maintenance
  • speed up a process
  • automate and/or simplify a manual task
  • increase security, reduce the risk of data loss
  • improve compatibility between other products
  • enable new choice or ability for users
  • last longer, break down less often, are simpler to repair
  • can be updated
  • can have its functionality extended
  • are easier to customise to suit individual preferences and needs
  • reduce environmental impact, e.g. can be repaired or recycled, use less electricity
  • are smaller, quieter, cooler
  • trialability - can be tested or tried out more easily without major investment of time, money or reorganisation
  • observability - its benefits are easily apparent
  • look sexy, increases users' social prestige
  • defy common "wisdom" - e.g. Google gives employees 20% of their time for personal projects - which led to Gmail, Google Maps, Adsense etc contributing to 25% of Google's annual income.
  • makes previous products immediately obsolete
  • are clearly and immediately different to competing products
  • need little explanation or persuasion to potential buyers

In short innovative solutions have this effect...

 

AC U2O1 KK09

Design tools and techniques for representing Solutionglossary link designs, such as

  • mock-ups,
  • Pseudocodeglossary link,
  • sitemaps and
  • storyboards

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools

vcedata.com slideshow Mockups

vcedata.com slideshow Design factors

vcedata.com slideshow Data dictionary

vcedata.com slideshow Design tools for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Entity relationship diagrams (ERD) for databases

vcedata.com slideshow Pseudocode

vcedata.com slideshow Website design tools (sitemaps, storyboards)

 

AC U2O1 KK10 Functions and techniques for developing innovative Solutionglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Design Ideas

 

AC U2O1 KK11 Techniques for Validatingglossary link and Testingglossary link Solutionglossary links

Data Validation

vcedata.com slideshow Testing

How can one validate a solution? You validate data.

AC U2O1 KK12 Evaluation criteria and techniques for evaluating the Efficiencyglossary link and Effectiveness of innovative solutions

vcedata.com slideshow Evaluation criteria

vcedata.com slideshow Evaluation

 

AC U2O1 KK13 Tools and techniques for coordinating and monitoring projects, such as Gantt charts

vcedata.com slideshow Gantt Charts

The examiners don't mention PERT charts, but then again they don't mandate Gantt charts.

Please admire the real useful beauty of PERT charts.

 

AC U2O1 KK14 Goals and objectives of digital systemglossary links

vcedata.com slideshow Goals and objectives (of organisations)

vcedata.com slideshow Strategic, tactical and operational goals and objectives

 

AC U2O1 KK15 WebpageEconomic issues involving emerging technologies, such as access, deskilling, job loss, misuse and sustainability

 

AC U2O1 KK16 The impact of current and emerging technologies, such as automation, cyberbullying and the decline of physical human interactions and interpersonal skills

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O1 KK17

Key legislation and how emerging technologies are affected by:

  • the Copyright Act 1968,
  • the Health Records Act 2001,
  • the Privacy Act 1988 and
  • the Privacy and Protection Act 2014

vcedata.com slideshow Data privacy

vcedata.com slideshow Copyright

 

AC U2O1 KK18 Ethical issues arising from the development of emerging technologies.

vcedata.com slideshow Conflict processes

vcedata.com slideshow Ethical dilemmas

AC U2O2 KK01 Applications and capabilities of LANs, Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

vcedata.com slideshow Networks - LAN, WAN, Internet, VPN

vcedata.com slideshow Networking

vcedata.com slideshow Network designing

vcedata.com slideshow Measuring network reliability

 

AC U2O2 KK02 Functions and characteristics of key hardware and software components of networks required for communicating and storing data and information

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware & software

vcedata.com slideshow Hardware

vcedata.com slideshow Network Hardware

vcedata.com slideshow Network protocols

 

AC U2O2 KK03

Strengths and limitations of

  • wired,
  • wireless and
  • mobile communications technology,

measured in terms of

  • cost,
  • data storage options,
  • data transfer rate,
  • reliability and
  • security

vcedata.com slideshow Wired - Wireless (under construction)

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O2 KK04 Technical underpinnings of intranets, the internet and virtual private networks

vcedata.com slideshow Network Hardware

vcedata.com slideshow Networks - LAN, WAN, Internet, VPN

vcedata.com slideshow Networking

vcedata.com slideshow Network designing

vcedata.com slideshow Measuring network reliability

 

AC U2O2 KK05 Design tools for representing the appearance of networks

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O2 KK06

Security threatsglossary link to data and information, such as

  • improper credential management,
  • malicious software,
  • outdated versions of software and
  • weak passwords

vcedata.com slideshow Security Threats

 

AC U2O2 KK07

Technical underpinnings of malware that can intentionally threaten the security of networks, such as

  • denial of service attacks on websites,
  • spyware,
  • viruses and worms

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O2 KK08

Data and network protection strategies, such as

  • authentication techniques and
  • symmetric and asymmetric encryption methods

vcedata.com slideshow

 

AC U2O2 KK09

Preventative practices to reduce risks to networks, such as

  • application of firmware,
  • disaster recovery plans,
  • operating system updates,
  • software malware updates and
  • staff procedures

vcedata.com slideshow Data Disaster Recovery Plans

 

AC U2O2 KK10

Technical underpinnings of

  • intrusion detection systems (IDS) and
  • intrusion prevention systems (IPS)

vcedata.com slideshow Data Security

 

AC U2O2 KK11 The role of ethical hacking

 

AC U2O2 KK12 Risks and benefits of using networks in a global environment

 

AC U2O2 KK13

Key legislation that affects how organisations control the storage and communication of data and information:

  • the Health Records Act 2001,
  • the Privacy Act 1988 and
  • the Privacy and Data Protection Act 2014

vcedata.com slideshow Privacy Act

AC U2O2 KK14 Ethical issues arising from data and information security practices.

vcedata.com slideshow Managing ethical dilemmas

 

 

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This page was created on 2022-01-17
Last modified on Saturday 29 October, 2022 15:07

Saturday 29 October, 2022 15:07